CEU 0.2/PDH 2

The 2018 Edition is here and once again, change is a constant theme. From both minor and major revisions, to new additions and major reorganizations, the 11th edition contains many changes.

Earn 0.2 CEUs / 2 PDHs with this training program. Upon completing and passing the final quiz, a certificate of completion and course transcript will be available at your "Brain Vault".

Many global changes found throughout the 2018 edition include:

All mathematical symbols are replaced with alpha numeric values. i.e. “>” is now spelled out as “greater than”

cal/cm^2 are the primary units and J/cm^2 is in parenthesis.

A greater emphasis is placed on risk assessment.

Job Safety Planning was added as a new Section 110.1(I)

All training requirements are now located in 110.2. This includes relocating Lockout-Tagout training from Article 120.

All Lockout/Tagout auditing requirements were relocated to 110.1(K)(3).

In order to continue improving the standard to be more user friendly, Article 120 has been reorganized for a more logical flow.

Other changes include the deletion of the informational note regarding de-energizing above 40 cal/cm^2

The list of PPE standards has been removed from the mandatory part of the standard are re-located in informational text.

Conformity assessment requirements are now part of the mandatory language.

CEU 0.6/PDH 6

Learn how to perform short circuit analysis / calculations and equipment adequacy evaluations. Understand the importance of X/R ratios, symmetrical vs. asymmetrical faults and how series ratings work. Many calculation examples are used to illustrate how to perform an analysis. The methods are based on the IEEE Violet book and the course is loaded with many in class examples and problems for a hands on learning experience.

Learn how to perform short circuit analysis / calculations and equipment adequacy evaluations. Understand the importance of X/R ratios, symmetrical vs. asymmetrical faults and how series ratings work. Many calculation examples are used to illustrate how to perform an analysis. The methods are based on the IEEE Violet book and is loaded with many in class examples and problems for a hands on learning experience.

Jim has developed this course based on almost four decades of extensive experience with industrial, commercial and utility power systems. Even instructors from other training companies have attended Jim’s classes to see how it’s done. You will learn how to conduct a short circuit study.

**SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS – INTRODUCTION**

Short Circuit Study Requirements, NEC® 110.9 and 110.10, Interrupting and Withstand Ratings, Data Requirements, Available Utility Short Circuit Current, Conductor Impedance, Source Impedance, X/R Ratio, Per Phase Calculations, Thevenin Equivalent, Impedance

**CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS**

Determining the Source Impedance, Calculating the Conductor Impedance, Conductor Impedance Tables, Conductor Calculation Worksheets. In Class Problems – Short Circuit Calculations with Conductor Impedance

**TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS**

Transformer Testing and Percent Impedance, X/R Ratio, Using Percent Impedance for Short Circuit Calculations, Determining the Source Impedance in Percent, Infinite Bus Calculations, Transformer Calculation Worksheets. In Class Problems – Short Circuit Calculations with Transformer Impedance

**MOTOR CONTRIBUTION**

Theory of Motor Short Circuit Contribution, Sub-Transient Reactance, Xd”, Effect of Motor Contribution on Short Circuit Current, Multipliers for Motor Contribution. In Class Problems – Consideration of Motor Contribution

**DEVICE INTERRUPTING RATINGS**

Circuit Breaker and Fuse Interrupting Ratings, UL and ANSI Testing Methods, Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Short Circuit Current, Effect of X/R Ratio on Interrupting Ratings, Multiplying Factors when the X/R and Asymmetry are Too Large

**SERIES RATINGS**

Development of Series Ratings, Proper Application of Series Ratings, Dynamic Impedance, Fully Rated vs. Series Rated, Current Limitation, Let Thru Current, U.L. Tests

**CASE PROBLEM**

Short Circuit Study of Small Industrial System. Calculations Include Source, Conductor and Transformer Impedance, Motor Contribution and Protective Device Adequacy Evaluation.

**Receive Answers to These Questions and More**

• What questions do I ask the utility company?

• What is the X/R ratio?

• How does the X/R ratio effect a device’s interrupting rating?

• What is motor contribution?

• How do I calculate motor contribution on new systems with an undefined load?

• Is a short circuit study legally required?

• What kind of data is required for the short circuit studies?

• What if I can’t find all of the data, what assumptions can I make?

• Why is the L/E ratio so important?

• How do current limiting fuses operate?

• What is a symmetrical current vs. asymmetrical current?

• How do I properly apply series ratings?

CEU 0.1/PDH 1

NFPA 70E 130.5(H) defines the minimal information for Equipment Labels (sometimes referred to as Arc Flash Labels. There are many other factors to consider such as colors, signal words, additional information, minimal information and more. This program discusses the requirements, and provides simplification strategies for arc flash labels and how to minimize the need to re-label.

CEU 1.6/PDH 16

The backbone of many electric power systems is the medium voltage distribution system. Typically operating at voltages ranging from 2,400 to 34,500 Volts, voltage stress, corona, surges and protection of equipment all create unique challenges in design, equipment selection, operation and engineering.

This 16 hour training course by Jim Phillips, P.E. takes you through the fundamentals of medium voltage power systems including the components, equipment, design and operation problems as well as overcurrent protection, surge protection, insulation coordination and many other important aspects of medium voltage power systems.

Jim has developed this course based on almost four decades of extensive experience with industrial, commercial and utility power systems and standards development. He is not just another trainer reading a script. Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from being very active with many different standards committees which provides him with the unique perspective, literally from the inside. Coupled with his broad electrical power background, he loves sharing his experience and insider’s view with others.

One of the many topics that Jim discusses in this 2 day class is overcurrent relays and relay settings including determining the current transformer ratio, CT saturation calculations, determining overcurrent relay settings and calculating transformer differential relay settings. This class also includes many other topics such as surge protection, insulation coordination and more.

**INTRODUCTION**

Medium Voltage Systems, Voltage Ranges, Special Considerations

Failure Modes, Voltage Stress, Thermal Stress

**MEDIUM VOLTAGE SAFETY**

Electrocution at Low vs. Medium Voltage, Arc Flash Issues, Qualified Person,

Approach Boundaries

**TYPES OF MEDIUM VOLTAGE SYSTEMS**

Utility and Industrial One lines, Reliability Requirements, Overhead and Underground

Systems, Regulated Systems

**MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLE**

Copper vs. Aluminum Design, Voltage Ratings

Insulation Ratings, 100%, 133%, 173% Insulation Levels, Shielding Requirements,

Electric Fields, Terminating MV Conductors, Orientation of Overhead Lines

**MEDIUM VOLTAGE SUBSTATION TRANSFORMERS**

Core and Coil Design, Aluminum and Copper Windings, Transformer Characteristics, Tank Construction, Loss Evaluation, Loss Calculations, Efficiency Calculations, Regulation

**SPOT NETWORKS**

Spot Network Design, Network Protectors, Network Protector Relay Operation, Directional Protection Requirements, Large Network Fault Currents

**PARTIAL DISCHARGE**

Corona, Surface Tracking, Voltage Stress, Sensing Partial Discharge, Component Failure

**GROUNDING MEDIUM VOLTAGE SYSTEMS**

Resistance Grounding, Solid Grounding, Ungrounded Delta Charging Current, Coefficient of Grounding Calculations, Effect of Ground Faults on Delta Voltage, Sizing Grounding Resistors, High Resistance Grounding vs. Low Resistance Grounding

**OVERVIEW OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS**

Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence Impedance, Per Unit

Line-to-Ground Short Circuit Calculations

**SURGE PROTECTION**

Lightning and Switching Surges, Classes of Surge Arresters, Insulation Basic Impulse Level BIL , Basic Impluse Switching Insulation Level (BSL) Front of Wave (FOW), MCOV Ratings – (Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage) TOV – (Maximum Temporary Over Voltage Capability), Protective Characteristics, Surge Arrester Selection, Energy Capability, Effect of Grounding on Arrester Selection, Insulation Coordination, Protective Ratio and Protective Margin Calculations.

**CURRENT TRANSFORMER APPLICATIONS**

Ratings, Selection Process, Accuracy, Saturation, Excitation Curves, Burden,

Calculation, Momentary Ratings, CT Saturation Calculations for Performance

**MEDIUM VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS**

Vacuum, Air, Oil, SF6 Designs, Symmetrical Interrupting Rating, K-Rated

Voltage Factor, Close and Latch Capability

**OVERCURRENT RELAYS**

Protective Relay Concepts, Selective Coordination Principles, ANSI Device Numbers i.e. 50, 51, 67, 32, 27, etc. Amp Tap, Time Dial, Instantaneous Setting Relay Setting Calculations, Digital Relays, Electromechanical Relays, Time Margins, Coordination Between Devices

**RECLOSERS**

Application on Feeder Circuits, Recloser Settings, Continuous Current and Interrupting Ratings

**MEDIUM VOLTAGE FUSES**

Medium Voltage Switches, Load Rating, Expulsion vs. Current Limiting Fuse Characteristics, E and R Rated Fuses, Fuse Cutouts, ANSI Time Current Points

**MEDIUM VOLTAGE PROTECTION CONCEPTS**

Medium Voltage Protection, Relays, Circuit Breakers, R and E rated Fuses,

Short Circuit vs. Overcurrent Protection

**DISTRIBUTION FEEDER PROTECTION**

Protection with Fuses – 300%, Overcurrent Protection with Relays – 600%,

Short Circuit Damage Characteristics, Relay “Reach” for End of Line Faults

**ROTATING MACHINERY PROTECTION**

Protection Requirements, Generator Decrement Curves, Thermal Damage Curves, Reactive,

Capability Curves, Differential Protection, Protection Example Calculations

**MEDIUM VOLTAGE MOTOR CONTROLLERS**

Protection Requirements, Motor Management Relays, Circuit Breaker Protection, Relaying, Class R Rated Fuses

**TRANSFORMER PROTECTION**

ANSI C57 Transformer Thru Fault Curves, Impact of Transformer Winding Configuration,

Overview of Differential Protection, Inrush and Harmonic Restraint, Hands On Differential Relay Setting Calculation Problems and Calculation Worksheets.

Questions? Call us 800.874.8883 (U.S.) or email

CEU 1.6/PDH 16

**COMING SOON!**** **In this 16 hour course, Jim Phillips, P.E., discusses the changes to the 2018 Edition of IEEE 1584 and then walks you through the calculations with his new worksheets and how the 2018 edition is is used in arc flash studies.

The 2018 edition of IEEE 1584 is a major game changer. Almost everything has changed since the original edition was introduced in 2002.

Highlights of the next edition include:

- Five different electrode configurations to enable more detailed modeling
- Vertical electrodes in a metal box/enclosure – VCB (also in 2002 Edition)
- Vertical electrodes terminated in an insulating barrier in a metal box/enclosure – VCCB
- Horizontal electrodes in a metal box/enclosure – HCB
- Vertical electrodes in open air – VOA (also in 2002 Edition)
- Horizontal electrodes in open air – HOA
- More choices for enclosure types and sizes
- Enclosure correction factor calculation to adjust for specific enclosure size
- The effect of grounding has been eliminated
- An arcing current variation factor calculation replaces the 85% factor
- Calculations performed at 1 of 3 voltage levels with interpolation to actual voltage
- The 125 kVA transformer exception was eliminated

Each calculation is performed in 2 steps which includes an initial calculation based on one of three voltage levels and a second calculation interpolating to the specific system voltage. The 125 kVA “exception” was replaced. Learn why and what has replaced it. What about the 2 second rule? Jim discusses all this and much more.

Jim is not just another trainer reading a script. For almost four decades, Jim has been helping tens of thousands of people around the world understand electrical power system design, analysis and safety. Having taught over 2500 classes during his career to people from all seven continents (Yes Antarctica is included!), he has developed a reputation for being one of the best trainers and public speakers in the electric power industry.

Jim literally wrote the book about arc flash studies with “How Guide to Perform Arc Flash Hazard Calculations” and he is a regular contributor to NECA’s multi-award winning Electrical Contractor Magazine. He has a broad background with industrial, commercial and utility power systems as well as serving as Vice-Chair of IEEE 1584, International Chair of IEC TC78, Technical Committee Member NFPA 70E and many other codes and standards that provide him with a unique perspective.

When asked questions about some topics, his explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…” or “Here is why it was written in a particular way”

Read Jim’s article outlining the major changes to IEEE 1584 **[Read Article]**

**INTRODUCTION TO ARC FLASH STUDIES**

**ARC FLASH AND OTHER ELECTRICAL HAZARDS**

Physiological Effects, Electrocution, Tissue Damage, Internal Organ Damage, Burns Fibrillation, “Curable” 2nd Degree Burn

**CODES AND STANDARDS**

OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910, Subpart S, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2018 NFPA 70E, (CSA Z462 for Canada Classes) Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, 2018 IEEE Standard 1584™, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, Legal Requirements, Liability

** 2018 EDITION – IEEE 1584 – DEVELOPMENT**

History of the Development of the 2018 IEEE 1584, IEEE/NFPA Collaboration, Working Group and Project Team, Almost 2000 New Arc Flash Tests, What Took So Long? Range of Applicability, Data Requirements, Study Process, Table of Results for the Arc Flash Study Report.

**ARC FLASH CIRCUIT DYNAMICS **

Arcing Faults vs. Bolted Faults, Effect of Current on Overcurrent Device Clearing Time, Current Limitation, Effect of Transformer Size and Source Strength

**MODELING THE ARC FLASH STUDY**

One-Line, Data, System Configuration, Multiple Sources

**ELECTRIC UTILITY COMPANY DATA**

What data should be requested, minimum and maximum fault current, why not to use infinite bus calculations, what if the data can not be obtained?

**OVERVIEW OF CHANGES TO THE 2018 IEEE 1584**

Introduction and Summary of the Major Changes

**ELECTRODE CONFIGURATIONS**

VCB – Vertical electrodes in a metal box/enclosure, VCCB Vertical electrodes terminated in an insulating barrier in a metal box/enclosure, HCB – Horizontal electrodes in a metal box/enclosure, VOA – Vertical electrodes in open air, HOA – Horizontal electrodes in open air

**ARCING SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS– LOW VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Average Arcing Current, Calculation Final Arcing Current – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**ENCLOSURE SIZES AND TYPES**

New Enclosures, Sizes and Types, Gap Distances

**ENCLOSURE SIZE CORRECTION FACTOR CALCULATIONS**

Determining Correction Factor for Enclosure Size. Shallow vs. Typical Enclosure

**WORKING DISTANCE**

Selection of Working Distance for Incident Energy Calculations

**ARC DURATION**

Using Time Current Curves, 2 Second Cut Off, Arc Sustainability, 125 kVA Transformer Exception Deletion – Why?

**INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS – LOW VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Incident Energy, Calculation of Final Incident Energy – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**ARC FLASH BOUNDARY CALCULATIONS – LOW VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Arc Flash Boundary, Calculation of Final Arc Flash Boundary – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**ARCING CURRENT VARIATION FACTOR**

Calculation the Arcing Current Variation Factor for Minimum Arcing Current, Replacement for 85% factor, Applies to all Voltages

**ARCING SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS – MEDIUM VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Average Arcing Current, Calculation Final Arcing Current – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS – MEDIUM VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Incident Energy, Calculation of Final Incident Energy – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**ARC FLASH BOUNDARY CALCULATIONS – MEDIUM VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Arc Flash Boundary, Calculation of Final Arc Flash Boundary – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**DC ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS **

V-I Characteristics, DC Arc Resistance Calculations, DC Incident Energy Calculations, Box vs. Open Arc Calculations, Calculation Worksheets, Problem Solving

**COMPARISON OF CALCULATION METHODS AND CONFIGURATIONS**

Calculation Results from 2002 IEEE 1584 Compared to 2018 IEEE 1584, Comparison or Results for VCB, VCCB, HCB

**MODELING TIPS**

Selection of Electrode Configuration, Enclosure Size, Gap Distances

**OTHER HAZARD MEASUREMENTS**

Light, Blast Pressure, Sound Pressure

**DETERMINING PPE REQUIREMENTS FROM INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS**

Using calculated incident energy to determine PPE requirements. Simplifying the Selection

** ARC FLASH WARNING LABELS**

Jim’s Simplification for Arc Flash Labels to Reduce or Eliminate the Need to Re-Label, Minimum Requirements, Label Locations, ANSI Z535 Requirements, Incident Energy vs. Site Specific PPE vs. Arc Rating, Signal Words and Colors

**QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS CLASS OR TO HOLD IT AT YOUR LOCATION:**

**CONTACT US AT 800.874.8883**

• How do I organize a study?

• What equipment really needs labeled?

• Where do I obtain the required data?

• How much information is really required on the arc flash label?

• Do I need all data such as conductor lengths?

• How do I calculate AC incident energy, arcing current & arc flash boundary?

• What is the difference between low voltage and medium voltage calculations?

• How do I calculate DC incident energy from an arc flash?

• How do I calculate DC arc resistance and what is a V-I characteristic?

• How accurate are the IEEE 1584 calculations?

• Why do I also have to analyze arc flash during for minimum fault currents?

• What very important question do I ask the electric utility?

• Are time current curves a reliable way to determine arc flash clearing time?

• What if I have a low arcing current that causes a long clearing time?

• Why was the 125 kVA 208V exclusion deleted?

• Is the “2 second cut off” appropriate?

• How long can an arc sustain itself? – discussion of recent test data.

• Why do I use a comparison of 100% and the minimum arcing current?

• Does the type of equipment make a difference in the calculations?

• What changed regarding grounded vs. ungrounded systems?

• What about Arc Blast, Light and Sound Pressure?

• How do I include motor contribution to the calculations?

• How can current limiting devices reduce the incident energy?

• Why use remote operation, arc resistant equipment, and maintenance switches?

• Why is selecting the correct working distance an important part of the calculations?

CEU 0.1/PDH 1

The second edition of *IEEE 1584 - IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations *was Sixteen years in the making. This program provides an overview of the major changes including topics such as grounding, electrode configuration, 125 kVA transformer exception, new calculation process and more.